PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCTION
1. COST OF CULTIVATION:
In Today's environment to start areca cultivation one should have patience, commitment, perseverance, team of labors and ability to invest lakhs of rupees. Preparation of land layout for planting, fencing, digging and opening of drains, digging of pits for areca planting, cost of areca seeds, fertilizers, irrigation materials and expense of plant protection measures, mulching and shading expenses, crop operations, cleaning of drains, application of fresh soil and management of intercrops are the major components of cost involved in the cultivation of areca nut. Now a days areca cultivation by buying plain land calls for substantial investment.
2.PESTS CAUSING MAJOR CROP LOSS:
Areca nut cultivation in the study area is subject to disturbance by several insects and non-insects. These insects could infest all parts of the areca palm from the root to areca fruits. The major pests causing considerable crop loss to the farmers will comprise of Mites, Spindle bugs, Caterpillars and Root grubbers. These pests are either seasonal or persistent with the crop. Non insect pests cause fall of Inflorescence and leaves. Apart from this, other minor Nursery pests, trunk feeders, Leaf feeders and tender nut feeders are considered to be faltering chunk in the course of production.
Areca nut palm in the District is reported to be affected by a number of diseases during different stages of its growth and development. ‘Around 20 types of diseases causing varying degrees of damages to the tree have been discovered and identified in India’.
However, in UK District the following major nine types of diseases are reported to be responsible for the downfall in the process of production activity.
- Yellow leaf diseases (YLD)or ‘Chandi roga’.
- Mahali (‘Kole roga’).
- ‘Anabe roga’ or mushroom bottom route.
- Inflorescence death and batten flaking.
- flower or bud decompose.
- The spring or ‘Hirimundige’.
- Sun scorch or Stem breaking.
- Nut splitting (front and back).
- Fungal infection.
4.WATER AND IRRIGATION DIFFICULTIES:
U.K District is wealthy in river. Still, in recent years farmers are facing water problem here and there due to lack of channelized water supply system and erratic rain effect. Moreover, reduced level of ground water has added fuel to the burning issues. Though there are many ponds, lakes, water reservoirs in the high land area, they are with full of mud, due to improper maintenance, negative attitude shown by authorities concerned or organized body of farmers and individual farmers to clean up the water sources for its utilization. Farmers need to invest lakhs of rupees to irrigate land.
5.EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION, DWINDLING AND DWINING OF GREEN FORESTS:
Geographically, U.K. Dist. is spread over an area of 10,29,679 hectare, out of which 80 percent is forest land and only 1,38,711 hectare is available for cultivation. But today so called green and gleaming compact of dense forest depicts the dwining scene due to power projects and other projects in the name of development. Finally this deforestation effect has made deep impact on areca farming. It could be seen from the attack of wild animals and birds, crowd in the areca garden, reduction in water supply, increased temperature, decreasing rain etc., Besides this providing grebe green leaf manure has become costly for the farmers, it has badly damaged the yield.
6.LACK OF LABOUR SAVING APPLIANCES :
Till today, areca cultivation has maintained its unique nature of labor intensive system. Problems of labor has created the urgent need and necessity of labor saving appliances. However, these are not available to the desired extent, which has posed problems over production.
7.STABILITY IN PRODUCTION :
Quantum of yield differs from place to place in the District. On the contrary, yield rate is not stable due to climate variations, rain, diseases and pests. So that growers will have to face the situation of instability in the production. This trend will have impinging impact on the socio-economic development of the growers.
8.DIFFICULTY IN GROWING INTERCROPS :
Over the period of decades, U.K. Dist. has maintained its traditional popularity in producing intercrops like Pepper, Cardamom, Banana, Betel vine, and coconut. But, since fifteen years it became difficult to grow these intercrops due to various diseases, erratic rate behavior, disturbance caused by the animals, birds attack etc. Therefore, failure of inter crops have accelerated the problems of areca gardeners having the adverse effect over yield on the one hand and threatening economic life on the other.
9.CROP MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION :
Unlike other agricultural crops areca is to be maintained properly to enjoy the benefits of better yielding. It has to be protected at all the stages before, during and after the harvest from the natural calamities, pest and other diseases, animals, labor, technical, theft etc., Hence thought to be hard to grow and maintain.